General Information

Domestic goats along with sheep are humankind’s oldest domesticated species dating back some 10,000 years. For thousands of years, goats have been used for their milk, meat, hair, and skins over much of the world. In the last century they have also gained some popularity as pets.

An ideal family dairy animal, the dairy goat is easily handled and can be kept on small parcels of land. The dairy goat’s appeal to young people is evidenced by the numerous dairy goat projects in the 4-H and FFA programs. It is alert, intelligent, socially inclined and affectionate. A loving and loved animal, it returns the cost of its feed in a valuable and healthful food product. Its delicious milk, produced so economically, is wholesome and nutritious.

An aspect of the dairy goat industry that is steadily increasing is the modern commercial dairy. Goat milk is fresh, raw or pasteurized, condensed and dried. Grocery stores and specialty shops offer gourmet cheese and ice creams made of goat milk, as well as body products.

Dairy Goat Products

There is no perceptible difference between the flavor of properly handled goat milk and that of cow milk. Goat milk is whiter than whole cow milk. Butter and cheese made from goat milk are also white, but may be colored during processing. Goat milk is delicious, nutritious and wholesome. It may not be a miracle food, but it does have distinct characteristics that make it beneficial. The fat globules are smaller than those in cow milk and the curd is softer and smaller, making the digestion easier. Those who are allergic to cow milk may tolerate and thrive on goat milk.

Goat milk is used for drinking, cooking and baking. It is used to make cheese, butter, ice cream, yogurt and body products. Goat milk is naturally emulsified. Cream does not rise readily, but can be obtained with a mechanical separator. The meat of the goat is chevron or cabrito. It can be barbecued, baked, fried, broiled or stewed. Goat leather is soft and fine grained when well cured. It is used to make many kinds of quality leather items. The dairy goat’s pelleted droppings make an excellent organic fertilizer.

Milk Comparison

 GoatCowHuman
Protein %3.03.01.1
Fat %3.83.64.0
Calories/100 ml706968
Vitamin A (i.u./gram fat)392132
Vitamin B1/thiamin (µg/100 ml)684517
Riboflavin (µg/100 ml)21015926
Vitamin C (mg ascorbic acid/100 ml)223
Vitamin D (i.u./gram fat)0.70.70.3
Calcium %0.190.180.04
Iron %0.070.060.2
Phosphorus %0.270.230.06
Cholesterol (mg/100 ml)121520

References

Dronen, Karyl, April 1990. “Nutritional Composition of Goat Milk Products in the U.S.” Dairy Goat Journal.
Pennington, Jean A.T., and Helen Nichols Church, 1985. Bowen and Church Food Values of Portions Commonly Used. J.B. Lippincott, Philadelphia.
Renner, Edmund, 1983. Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition. W.G. Mott. University of Glessen, Munich, Germany.